Subsurface and Through-the-Wall Imaging

In the last half-century, probing matter with electromagnetic (EM) fields to give a human-intelligible image of a region under test in a non-invasive fashion has been a very attractive field of research. Notwithstanding, the processing of data collected – for instance – by means of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) is still considered a
challenging problem. In this context, innovative imaging techniques have been developed by the members of the ELEDIA Research Center network to provide easy-to-interpret and reliable images of subsurface and/or through-the-wall domains. The application scenarios considered within ELEDIA include

  • Unexploded ordnances detection;
  • Archaeology;
  • Civil engineering;
  • Geosciences;
  • Structural health monitoring
  • Forensic investigations;
  • Search and rescue missions;
  • Surveillance, reconnaissance, and security.

The methodologies developed within ELEDIA are based on a wide variety of paradigms, including (i) the real-time detection and classification of buried objects based on the learning-by-example (LBE) techniques, (ii) the use of deterministic, stochastic, and probabilistic compressive sensing (CS) strategies combined with multi-resolution and multi-frequency schemes to provide robust and accurate quantitative reconstructions of the inaccessible investigated domain.

Example of buried object detection (from 10.1109/TGRS.2016.2622061)


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  • M. Salucci, A. Gelmini, L. Poli, G. Oliveri, and A. Massa, "Progressive compressive sensing for exploiting frequency-diversity in GPR imaging," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1164-1193, January 2018 (DOI: 10.1080/09205071.2018.1425160)
  • M. Salucci, L. Poli, and A. Massa, "Advanced multi-frequency GPR data processing for non-linear deterministic imaging," Signal Processing vol. 132, pp. 306-318, March 2017 (DOI: 10.1016/j.sigpro.2016.06.019)
  • M. Salucci, L. Poli, N. Anselmi, and A. Massa, "Multifrequency Particle Swarm Optimization for Enhanced Multiresolution GPR Microwave Imaging," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 1305-1317, March 2017 (DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2016.2622061)
  • M. Salucci, L. Tenuti, L. Poli, G. Oliveri, and A. Massa, "A computational method for the inversion of wide-band GPR measurements," Journal of Physics: Conference Series vol. 756, no. 1, pp. 012008, October 2016 (DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/756/1/012008)
  • M. Salucci, G. Oliveri, and A. Massa, "GPR Prospecting Through an Inverse-Scattering Frequency-Hopping Multifocusing Approach," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 6573-6592, December 2015 (DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2444391)
  • M. Salucci, G. Oliveri, A. Randazzo, M. Pastorino, and A. Massa, "Electromagnetic subsurface prospecting by a multifocusing inexact Newton method within the second-order Born approximation," Journal of the Optical Society of America A vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1167, May 2014 (DOI: 10.1364/JOSAA.31.001167)
  • M. Salucci, G. Oliveri, A. Randazzo, M. Pastorino, and A. Massa, "Electromagnetic subsurface prospecting by a fully nonlinear multifocusing inexact Newton method," Journal of the Optical Society of America A vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 2618, November 2014 (DOI: 10.1364/JOSAA.31.002618)
  • M. Salucci and N. Anselmi, "Multi-Frequency GPR Microwave Imaging of Sparse Targets through a Multi-Task Bayesian Compressive Sensing Approach," Journal of Imaging vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 247, November 2021 (DOI: 10.3390/jimaging7110247)
  • A. Randazzo, C. Estatico, A. Fedeli, P. Rosatti, M. Salucci, F. Zardi, and M. Pastorino, "Assessment of an Lp‐space multi‐focusing inversion method for subsoil mapping with multi‐frequency data," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 2559-2564, June 2021 (DOI: 10.1002/mop.32921)