Due to the explosion of the portable devices and services and the unavoidable congestion of the wireless spectrum, antennas exploiting control parameters varying in time (4D) are currently seen as one of the possible breakthrough for the next generation wireless communications and sensing systems in order to implement the so-called cognitive radio paradigm.
Indeed, modern implementations of 4D antenna and antenna arrays enable the simple/software and remote reconfiguration of the antenna features, like for example frequency, steering, beam shape, and multi-beam generation, by means of the time-domain tuning of the array control points.

Present research activities on 4D antennas and antenna arrays span several technological fields, including electromagnetics, communications, electronics, control theory, and computer science since their development requires the integration of heterogeneous skills and complementary competences. Indeed, the use of the fourth dimension has opened the path to a completely new set of problems regarding antenna theory and synthesis, real-time and adaptive control, optimization and design of novel radiating systems and devices as well as novel applications like secure communications at the physical level and massive MIMO. The ELEDIA@UESTC is involved in the study, optimization-based design, and prototyping of innovative and advanced 4D antennas and time-modulated arrays, as well as in the testing and performance analysis of the developed technological solutions.